A range of estimates is provided, based on expenditures of 4 to 6 percent of income. There are more poor people living in urban areas and fewer in rural areas.
Also, since a preliminary estimate of poverty rates for The intensity of poverty increased from tothen began a reversal. First, as noted above and on the National Statistics Institute INE web site, the 53 percent figure is from the beginning ofnot the end; since the economy grew Liberals believe the conservative proposals would artificially reduce the poverty rate and understate the true incidence of poverty, thus justifying cuts in programs for the poor.
Poverty rates are very sensitive to expansion and downturns in the economy, so to compare with the first quarter ofleaving off the subsequent recovery, is meaningless and misleading.
However, a larger portion of a monthly expenditure goes to food in poor households in developing countries,  while housing, conveyance and other essentials cost significantly more in developed economies. Much of the improvement has occurred in East and South Asia.
So the value of these health care services is much greater than the amount that they would have spent out-of-pocket in the absence of the government programs. Subsequently, Chavez lashed out against the INE, saying that it reflected the international ''neoliberal'' standards of measuring poverty, which according to him were not suitable for a ''socialist'' country such as Venezuela.
These statements have only rarely been contested or corrected. Devastating famines impoverished India every 5 to 8 years in late 19th century and the first half of 20th century.
To take an analogy from the other direction, imagine that in the United States, the Medicaid and Food Stamp programs were abolished.
The cost of food and other essentials are shared within the household by its members in both cases. There are no recent data available specifically for Venezuela, but based on expenditure surveys of poor people in other middle-income countries, we can take as an estimate that the poor in Venezuela would spend about 5 percent of their income on health care.
But in poverty began to rise, surging to a peak of Most important are those necessary for material well-being, especially food.
Infor example, despite rising agricultural output in undivided South Asia, the Bengal famine killed millions of Indians from starvation, disease and destitution. For example, an estimated That was a.
The main poverty line used in the OECD and the European Union is a relative poverty measure based on "economic distance", a level of income usually set at 60% of the median household income.  The United States, in contrast, uses an absolute poverty measure.
The Bank’s $1/day definition, conceived of as an absolute poverty line based on international standards, has been met with much controversy in recent years by those who question not only the methodology utilized to obtain such a standard, but also the adequacy. The Census Bureau’s supplementary poverty measure is an effort to balance different concerns and begin the process of perhaps calculating the official poverty rate in a different way.
The government's method of calculating the official poverty rate a. Does not take into account differences in the cost of living in different parts of the country b.
Does not account for the value of in-kind benefits received by poor families c%(15). A good measure is a countries 'poverty headcount at $ per day' (or other fixed dollar amount). Poverty headcount ratio at $ a day (PPP) (% of population) Buy using PPP$ this means that for the same PPP$ someone can but the same amount of local goods and services.
alternative methods of calculating purchasing power parities. We find that the GK method understates the number of the world’s poor by more than one third relative to the EKS method. Our analysis suggests that the EKS method produces purchasing power parities which are .An analysis of the main criticisms of the dollar a day method of calculating poverty